Pine-Fir Forest (Canadian Life Zone)
Non-technical Description: A high-elevation forest of tall evergreen (pine and fir) trees and few shrubs. The Pine-Fir Forest association occurs at higher elevations in the mountains and is dominated by Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) and White Fir (Abies concolor). The understory usually is open, but may include Wax Currant (Ribes cereum), Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and few other species. Disturbed areas such as avalanche corridors many be dominated by nearly pure stands of Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides). On rocky ridges and other places where trees are absent, Curlleaf Mountain Mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) may be common.