Concerning Copyright of Published Journal Articles



Under the Copyright Law of the United States of America and Related Laws Contained in Title 17 of the United States Code, applicable also to non-U.S. copyrights based on the Berne Convention, of which the U.S.A. became a member on March 1, 1989: "No part of any copyrighted material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or in any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher."

However, Limitations on exclusive rights, as established by Section 107 ("fair use") of the Law, indicate that: "the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. The electronic copies provided here are based on the "fair use" limitation of the U.S. Copyright Law, and I am not to be held responsible of recipients who wrongly choose to use such materials for purposes other than the "fair use" as described above.

Note: All distances, elevations, and other facts are approximate.
copyright; Last updated 090511